New Delhi: Petty corruption in India has come down sharply, but the total estimated bribe paid by households in past one year for public services - including amounts of as low as Rs 10 - still stands high at Rs 6,350 crore, says a study.
According to CMS-Indian Corruption Study (CMS-ICS) 2017, around one-third of the households experienced corruption in public services at least once during the past one year, while in 2005, 53 percent households had reported so.
Only 43 percent of the households surveyed in 2017 opined that the level of corruption in public services had risen during the past one year, while 73 percent of respondents had perceived increase in corruption level in public services in 2005.
The study said the decline in corruption was significant in case of some public services such as the police and judicial services, when compared to 2005 levels.
Total amount paid by households across 20 states and 10 public services as bribe, is estimated to be Rs 6,350 crore in 2017 as against Rs 20,500 crore in 2005.
In most of the states, the more often paid bribe amount ranged between Rs 100-500. However, an amount of as low as Rs 10 and as high as Rs 50,000 was also paid by households in a year for availing of one or the other public service.
Among public services, households reported experiencing corruption in the police was at 34 percent, followed by land/housing (24 percent), judicial services (18 percent) and tax (15 percent) and PDS (12 percent).
The study, which covered more than 3,000 households from over 200 rural and urban clusters of 20 states, noted a definite decline in both perception and experience of citizens about corruption in public services between 2005 and 2017.
Besides, it said that key reasons for paying bribe in a public service continues to be similar in most of the states, between 2005 and 2017.
The reasons for corrupt practices could be broadly categorized as procedural; documentation related; payment evasion and dependency on service provider.
Out of 20 states, households experiencing corruption in public services during last one year was highest in Karnataka (77 percent) followed by Andhra Pradesh (74 percent), Tamil Nadu (68 percent), Maharashtra (57 percent), J&K (44 percent) and Punjab (42 percent).
In 2005, the percentage of households experiencing corruption in public services were more in Bihar (74 percent), J&K (69 percent), Odisha (60 percent), Rajasthan (59 percent) and Tamil Nadu (59 percent).
According to the study, three less corrupt states in terms of households 'experiencing corruption in public services' are Himachal Pradesh (3 percent) followed by Kerala (4 percent) and Chhattisgarh (13 per cent).
In 2005, Kerala (35 percent), Maharashtra (39 percent) and Gujarat (43 percent) were the less corrupt states.