Electric cars are vehicles of the future. Though they look like standard cars, they are totally different from the vehicles that use traditional fuels in the way they work. They are not just environment-friendly than other cars but in most cases, they don't emit any exhaust gas too.
Electric cars use electricity stored in a battery pack to power an electric motor and turn the wheels. Instead of the traditional internal combustion engine, they use a large traction battery pack to power the electric motor. They must be plugged in to a charging station or wall outlet to charge.
Since these vehicles run on electricity, they do not need a complex exhaust system. Besides, since they do not contain liquid fuel, they do not need a fuel tank.
Battery: In an electric-drive vehicle, a battery pack provides electricity to power the vehicle and its accessories. It is known as all-electric auxiliary battery.
Charging port: The charging port helps the vehicle connect to an external power supply and charge the traction battery pack.
DC/DC converter: The DC/DC converter helps convert higher-voltage DC power from the traction battery pack to the lower-voltage DC power. Most accessories in the car need only lower-voltage DC power to operate. It also helps recharge the auxiliary battery.
Electric traction motor: The power required to move the vehicle's wheels is supplied by the electric traction motor from the battery pack. Some vehicles use motor generators that carry out drive and regeneration functions.
Onboard charger: The onboard charger takes the incoming AC electricity supplied via the charging port and converts it to DC power to store it in the traction battery. It also monitors voltage, current, temperature, and state of charge while charging the pack.
Power electronics controller: The flow of electrical energy delivered by the traction battery is managed by the power electronics controller. It also controls the speed of the electric traction motor and the torque it generates.
Thermal system for cooling: The thermal system maintains the operating temperature of the electric motor, power electronics and other components.
The battery pack: The traction battery pack stores electricity required for the electric traction motor of the car.
Transmission: The electric transmission transfers mechanical power from the electric traction motor to drive the wheels.