Berlin: Up to 95 percent of plastic debris found in the sea is carried by 10 major rivers, including the Ganga, scientists have found. Eight of these are in Asia and two in Africa - areas in which hundreds of millions of people live.
Every year, millions of tonnes of plastic debris ends up in the sea - a global environmental problem with unforeseeable ecological consequences.
The path taken by plastic to reach the sea must be elucidated before it will be possible to reduce the volume of plastic input.
Researchers showed that plastic debris is primarily carried into the sea by large rivers.
In the meantime, minute plastic particles can be found in the water in virtually every sea and river. This constitutes a serious and growing global environmental problem.
There are enormous quantities of input each year and plastic weathers only very slowly. Marine life can be harmed by the tiny plastic particles floating in the water.
One example of how this happens is when fish, seabirds or marine mammals mistake the particles for food and consume them.
"It is still impossible to foresee the ecological consequences of this. One thing is certain, however: this situation cannot continue," said Christian Schmidt, from Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research (UFZ) in Germany.
"But as it is impossible to clean up the plastic debris that is already in the oceans, we must take precautions and reduce the input of plastic quickly and efficiently," said Schmidt.
Researchers analyzed various scientific studies that examined the plastic load - that is the quantity of plastic carried by the water - in rivers.
They converted the results of the studies into mutually comparable datasets and determined the ratio of these figures to the quantity of waste that is not disposed of properly in the respective catchment area.
"We were able to demonstrate that there is a definite correlation in this respect," said Schmidt.
"The more waste there is in a catchment area that is not disposed of properly, the more plastic ultimately ends up in the river and takes this route to the sea," he said.
In this context, large rivers play a particularly large role - not only because they also carry a comparatively large volume of waste on account of their larger discharge.
"The concentrations of plastic ie the quantity of plastic per cubic meter of water are significantly higher in large rivers than small ones," said Schmidt.
"The plastic loads consequently increase at a disproportionately higher rate than the size of the river," he added.
The Uttarakhand high court had recently accorded the status of "living human entities" to Ganga, India's most sacred river.
Giving the "legal status" of living humans to the holy river, the court ordered that the director, Namami Gange project for cleaning and rejuvenating the river, the chief secretary and the advocate general of Uttarakhand will act as the "legal parents" of the holy river and work as a the human face to protect, conserve and preserve Ganga and its tributaries. Yamuna river had also been given the same status.
Prime Minister Narendra Modi after coming to power had declared an ambitious plan to clean Ganga which will cost at least Rs 25,000 crore a year for the exchequer.
He also had appointed Nitin Gadkari as the minister for Ganga development. His water resources ministry is tasked with the responsibility of executing the project dear to Modi. The Center has set a target of 2018 for cleaning the river, which touches lives of millions in one way or the other.
A total of 160 projects, worth around Rs 12,500 crore, have been approved under the Namami Gange Mission -- a Rs 20,000-crore project for cleaning the river.
These include developing river fronts, setting up sewage treatment plants and construction of ghats and crematoria, among others.